[R] Strange results with anova.glm()
John Fox
jfox at mcmaster.ca
Mon Oct 29 20:25:34 CET 2007
Dear Gustaf,
I can think of two reasons why the two tests can disagree.
First, the t-test from the summary() output is based on the covariance
matrix of the coefficients, while the F-test in the anova() output is
based of fitting alternative models. The two are not in general the
same.
Second, and apparently more important here, the test in summary() is
for each coefficient in the full model fit to the data, while the tests
in anova() are sequential tests; thus infl.treat is tested ignoring
everything else (but the intercept). When you use anova() to contrast
the full model with one deleting infl.treat you test the same
hypothesis as in the summary() output, and thus get similar (though not
identical) results.
You might take a look at the Anova() function in the car package which,
in a model of this structure, will test each term "after" the others.
I hope this helps,
John
On Mon, 29 Oct 2007 17:46:08 +0100
Gustaf Granath <Gustaf.Granath at ebc.uu.se> wrote:
> Hi,
> I have been struggling with this problem for some time now. Internet,
>
> books haven't been able to help me.
>
> ## I have factorial design with counts (fruits) as response variable.
> > str(stubb)
> 'data.frame': 334 obs. of 5 variables:
> $ id : int 6 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 31 34 ...
> $ infl.treat : Factor w/ 2 levels "0","1": 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 ...
> $ def.treat : Factor w/ 4 levels "1","2","3","4": 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 2 3 1
> ...
> $ initial.size : num 854 158 256 332 396 ...
> $ tot.fruit : int 45 8 19 8 10 7 4 7 2 6 ...
>
> ## I fit a glm model with initial.size as a covariate, and
> family=quasipoisson. I want to test if infl.treat or def.treat had an
>
> effect on tot.fruits. (i.e if different cutting treatments of the
> plants
> had an effect on total ## number of fruits).
> ## After model testing etc, I ended up with the following model:
>
> > model<-glm(tot.fruit ~ infl.treat + def.treat + initial.size,
> quasipoisson)
> > summary(model)
> Call: glm(formula = tot.fruit ~ infl.treat + def.treat +
> initial.size,
> family = quasipoisson)
>
> Deviance Residuals:
> Min 1Q Median 3Q Max
> -6.1541 -2.1872 -0.7045 0.9926 7.5629
>
> Coefficients:
> Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
> (Intercept) 1.8788185 0.1093306 17.185 < 2e-16 ***
> infl.treat1 -0.2456909 0.0924677 -2.657 0.00827 **
> def.treat2 -0.1478382 0.1277139 -1.158 0.24788
> def.treat3 -0.0780282 0.1207796 -0.646 0.51871
> def.treat4 -0.2581576 0.1221538 -2.113 0.03532 *
> initial.size 0.0013834 0.0000993 13.931 < 2e-16 ***
> ---
> Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
>
> (Dispersion parameter for quasipoisson family taken to be 6.845172)
>
> Null deviance: 3261.5 on 333 degrees of freedom
> Residual deviance: 2131.6 on 328 degrees of freedom
> AIC: NA
>
> Number of Fisher Scoring iterations: 5
>
> ## It seems like both infl.treat and def.treat have an effect.
> However,
> when I do an ANOVA table. It shows no effect at all of infl.treat!!!!
> I
> find that very peculiar since I only have two levels of that factor.
> ##
> Shouldn't it be a significant effect also in the ANOVA table?? In
> fact.
> It is not even close to significant - 0.886!!
> > anova(model, test="F")
> Analysis of Deviance Table
> Model: quasipoisson, link: log
> Response: tot.fruit
> Terms added sequentially (first to last)
>
> Df Deviance Resid. Df Resid. Dev F Pr(>F)
> NULL 333 3261.5
> infl.treat 1 0.1 332 3261.4 0.0205 0.88632
> def.treat 3 58.3 329 3203.1 2.8376 0.03814 *
> initial.size 1 1071.4 328 2131.6 156.5253 < 2e-16 ***
>
> ## If I do a ML test with a model with infl.treat and one without.
> The
> infl.treat is also significant and should be in the model!!
> > anova(model,model2, test="F")
> Analysis of Deviance Table
>
> Model 1: tot.fruit ~ infl.treat + def.treat + initial.size
> Model 2: tot.fruit ~ def.treat + initial.size
> Resid. Df Resid. Dev Df Deviance F Pr(>F)
> 1 328 2131.65
> 2 329 2180.40 -1 -48.75 7.1221 0.007992 **
> ## What is going on here?? I thought the ANOVA table would give me a
> quite similar result because I only have two levels (of the
> infl.treat
> factor) and no interactions in the model.
> ## I'm afraid I have missed something trivial though so please, be
> gentle ;)
>
> Cheers,
>
> Gustaf Granath
>
> --
> Gustaf Granath (PhD student)
> Dept of Plant Ecology
> Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC)
> Uppsala University
>
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--------------------------------
John Fox, Professor
Department of Sociology
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/jfox/
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