[R] kalman filter estimation
Paul Gilbert
pgilbert at bank-banque-canada.ca
Thu Nov 15 18:11:14 CET 2007
adschai at optonline.net wrote:
> Hi,
>
> Following convention below:
> y(t) = Ax(t)+Bu(t)+eps(t) # observation eq
> x(t) = Cx(t-1)+Du(t)+eta(t) # state eq
>
> I modified the following routine (which I copied from: http://www.stat.pitt.edu/stoffer/tsa2/Rcode/Kall.R) to accommodate u(t), an exogenous input to the system.
>
> for (i in 2:N){
> xp[[i]]=C%*%xf[[i-1]]
> Pp[[i]]=C%*%Pf[[i-1]]%*%t(C)+Q
> siginv=A[[i]]%*%Pp[[i]]%*%t(A[[i]])+R
> sig[[i]]=(t(siginv)+siginv)/2 # make sure sig is symmetric
> siginv=solve(sig[[i]]) # now siginv is sig[[i]]^{-1}
> K=Pp[[i]]%*%t(A[[i]])%*%siginv
> innov[[i]]=as.matrix(yobs[i,])-A[[i]]%*%xp[[i]]
> xf[[i]]=xp[[i]]+K%*%innov[[i]]
> Pf[[i]]=Pp[[i]]-K%*%A[[i]]%*%Pp[[i]]
> like= like + log(det(sig[[i]])) + t(innov[[i]])%*%siginv%*%innov[[i]]
> }
> like=0.5*like
> list(xp=xp,Pp=Pp,xf=xf,Pf=Pf,like=like,innov=innov,sig=sig,Kn=K)
> }
>
> I tried to fit my problem and observe that I got positive log likelihood mainly because the log of determinant of my variance matrix is largely negative. That's not good because they should be positive. Have anyone experience this kind of instability?
>
The determinant should not be negative (the line "# make sure sig is
symmetric" should look after that) but the log can be negative.
> Also, I realize that I have about 800 sample points. The above routine when being plugged to optim becomes very slow. Could anyone share a faster way to compute kalman filter?
The KF recursion you show is not time varying, but the code you show
looks like it may allow for time varying models. (I'm just guessing, I'm
not familiar with the code.) If you do not need the time varying aspect
then this is probably a slow way to implement. Package dse1 in the dse
bundle implements the recursion the way you show, with an exogenous
input u(t), so you don't even have to modify the code. It is implemented
in R for demonstration, but also in fortran for speed. See the dse Users
Guide for more details, and also ?SS and ?l.SS. One caveat is that the
way the likelihood is cumulated over i in your code above allows for
time varying sig, which in theory can be important for a diffuse prior.
In dse the likelihood is calculated using the residual to get a sample
estimate of sig, which is faster. I have not found cases where this
makes much difference (but would be interested to know of one).
> And my last problem is, optim with my defined feasible space does not converge. I have about 20 variables that I need to identify using MLE method. Is there any other way that I can try out? I tried most of the methods available in optim already. They do not converge at all...... Thank you.
This used to be a well known problem for multivariate state space
models, but seems to be largely forgotten. It does not seriously affect
univariate models. For a review of the old literature see section 5 of
Gilbert 1993, available at
<http://www.bank-banque-canada.ca/pgilbert/research.php#MiscResearch>.
The bottom line is that you are in trouble trying to use hill climbing
methods and state-space models unless you have a very good starting
point, or are luck. This is a feature of the parameter space, not a
reflection on the optimization routine. One solution is to start by
estimating a VAR or ARMA model and then convert it to a state space
model, which was one of the original purposes of dse. (See ?bft for
example.)
Paul Gilbert
> - adschai
>
> ______________________________________________
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> PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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